Sequence evolution and escape from specific immune pressure of an HIV-1 Rev epitope with extensive sequence similarity to human nucleolar protein 6.

Antigen-specific immunity is crucially important for containing viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected hosts. Several epitopes have been predicted for the early expressed HIV-1 proteins Tat and Rev, but few have been studied in detail. We characterized the human … Continue reading

Analysis of genes regulated by the transcription factor LUMAN identifies ApoA4 as a target gene in dendritic cells.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells of the immune system that play a crucial role in initiating immune responses and maintaining self tolerance. Better understanding of the molecular basis of DC immunobiology is required to improve DC-based immunotherapies. … Continue reading

PLGA, PLGA-TMC and TMC-TPP Nanoparticles Differentially Modulate the Outcome of Nasal Vaccination by Inducing Tolerance or Enhancing Humoral Immunity

Development of vaccines in autoimmune diseases has received wide attention over the last decade. However, many vaccines showed limited clinical efficacy. To enhance vaccine efficacy in infectious diseases, biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles have gained interest as antigen delivery systems. … Continue reading

Human Langerhans cells capture measles virus through Langerin and present viral antigens to CD4(+) T cells but are incapable of cross-presentation

Langerhans cells (LCs) are a subset of DCs that reside in the upper respiratory tract and are ideally suited to sense respiratory virus infections. Measles virus (MV) is a highly infectious lymphotropic and myelotropic virus that enters the host via … Continue reading

A lack of antibody formation against inactivated influenza virus after aerosol vaccination in presence or absence of adjuvantia Veterinary immunology and immunopathology

In the poultry industry, infections with avian influenza virus (AIV) can result in significant economic losses. The risk and the size of an outbreak might be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine that would be used for rapid intervention … Continue reading

Comprehensive analysis of the intracellular metabolism of antiretroviral nucleosides and nucleotides using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and method improvement by using ultra performance liquid chromatography

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are a key class of drugs for the treatment of HIV infection. NRTIs are intracellularly phosphorylated to their active triphosphate metabolites and compete with endogenous deoxynucleotides (dNTP) for substrate binding. It is therefore important to … Continue reading

Pathogenesis of Influenza A/H5N1 Virus Infection in Ferrets Differs between Intranasal and Intratracheal Routes of Inoculation

Most patients infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 virus develop severe pneumonia resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, with extrarespiratory disease as an uncommon complication. Intranasal inoculation of ferrets with influenza A/H5N1 virus causes lesions in both the respiratory … Continue reading

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 Infects Alveolar Macrophages without Virus Production or Excessive TNF-Alpha Induction

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of the subtype H5N1 causes severe, often fatal pneumonia in humans. The pathogenesis of HPAIV H5N1 infection is not completely understood, although the alveolar macrophage (AM) is thought to play an important role. HPAIV … Continue reading

Distinct severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-induced acute lung injury pathways in two different nonhuman primate species.

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), caused by influenza A virus H5N1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), supposedly depend on activation of the oxidative-stress machinery that is coupled with innate immunity, resulting in a … Continue reading

Determination of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir in plasma from HIV infected adults by ultrafast isotope dilution MALDI-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry.

A new and reliable mass spectrometric method using an isotope dilution method in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (ID-MALDI-QqQ-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the determination of concentrations of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir (TNV) in … Continue reading