Type I and III interferons enhance IL-10 receptor expression on human monocytes and macrophages, resulting in IL-10-mediated suppression of TLR-induced IL-12p70 production.

Currently, only about 30-50% of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients respond to IFN-based therapy. It has been suggested that IL-10 is involved in suppressing the activity of type I IFNs on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). … Continue reading

Infection with multiple viruses is not associated with increased disease severity in children with bronchiolitis.

BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of parallel detection of multiple viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) remains unclear. This study evaluated the association between the detection of multiple viruses by RT-PCR and disease severity in children with bronchiolitis. METHODS: Children … Continue reading

Sequence evolution and escape from specific immune pressure of an HIV-1 Rev epitope with extensive sequence similarity to human nucleolar protein 6.

Antigen-specific immunity is crucially important for containing viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected hosts. Several epitopes have been predicted for the early expressed HIV-1 proteins Tat and Rev, but few have been studied in detail. We characterized the human … Continue reading

Analysis of genes regulated by the transcription factor LUMAN identifies ApoA4 as a target gene in dendritic cells.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells of the immune system that play a crucial role in initiating immune responses and maintaining self tolerance. Better understanding of the molecular basis of DC immunobiology is required to improve DC-based immunotherapies. … Continue reading

Streptococcus pneumoniae exposure is associated with human metapneumovirus seroconversion and increased susceptibility to in vitro HMPV infection

It remains largely unknown which factors determine the clinical outcome of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether exposure to bacterial pathogens can influence HMPV infections. From 57 children, serum samples and colonization … Continue reading

PLGA, PLGA-TMC and TMC-TPP Nanoparticles Differentially Modulate the Outcome of Nasal Vaccination by Inducing Tolerance or Enhancing Humoral Immunity

Development of vaccines in autoimmune diseases has received wide attention over the last decade. However, many vaccines showed limited clinical efficacy. To enhance vaccine efficacy in infectious diseases, biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles have gained interest as antigen delivery systems. … Continue reading